ZERO caffeine intake is recommended for (would-be) pregnancy
Maternal caffeine consumption was associated with increased risk for four adverse outcomes:
- miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, childhood acute leukaemia;
- in addition, observational studies reported significant associations with childhood weight and obesity.
The dose-responsive nature of the associations between caffeine and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and the fact some studies found no threshold below which negative outcomes were absent, supports likely-causation rather than mere association.